Taxonomy conform IOC World Bird List


  • Breeding range => Palearctic : widespread inland temperate and subarctic Eurasia: British Is., Scandinavia and Baltic states to Iberian Peninsula e through s, c Russia to se Russia and ne China, s through Turkey and Caspian region, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia (nw, nc China)
  • Nonbreeding range => to n Africa, Arabian Peninsula, sub-Himalayan n Pakistan and n India, c, s Japan, Korean Peninsula, e China, Taiwan and n Vietnam



Near Threatened


This species is suspected to be decreasing at a moderately rapid rate.  It is therefore classified as Near Threatened.  Should new information suggest these declines are occurring more rapidly it would warrant uplisting; it almost meets the requirements for listing as threatened under criteria A2abce+3bce+4abce.


The species shows a preference for breeding on wet natural grasslands (Trolliet 2003), meadows and hay meadows (del Hoyo et al. 1996) with short swards (Hayman et al. 1986, Devereux et al. 2004) and patches of bare soil (Johnsgard 1981) at low altitudes (Hayman et al. 1986) (less than 1,000 m) (Snow and Perrins 1998).  It will also breed on grassy moors, swampy heaths, bogs and arable fields (Johnsgard 1981, del Hoyo et al. 1996).  The nest is a shallow scrape in short grass vegetation (del Hoyo et al. 1996).  During the winter the species utilises large open pastures for roosting (del Hoyo et al. 1996) and forages on damp grassland, irrigated land (Urban et al. 1986), stubble and ploughed fields (del Hoyo et al. 1996), riverbanks, lake shores, fresh and saline marshes, drainage ditches, estuaries and mudflats (Africa) (Urban et al. 1986).  Its diet consists of adult and larval insects (e.g. beetles, ants, Diptera, crickets, grasshoppers, dragonflies, mayflies, cicadas and Lepidoptera), spiders, snails, earthworms, frogs, small fish (Africa) and seeds or other plant material (Africa) (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996).  Most populations of this species are fully migratory and travel on a broad front out of Europe although some breeding populations in more temperate regions are sedentary (del Hoyo et al. 1996, Snow and Perrins 1998).  The species breeds from April to July (Hayman et al. 1986) in solitary pairs (del Hoyo et al. 1996) although pairs may also nest close together in optimal habitat (Johnsgard 1981, Trolliet 2003).


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Updated at: 2024-02-25 09:12:24
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