Taxonomy conform IOC World Bird List


  • Breeding range => Palearctic : Greenland, Iceland, w Europe to nc Siberia
  • Nonbreeding range => to sw Europe, wc, ec Africa, nw India, and e North America


  • L. f. graellsii - sw Greenland, Iceland, Faroe Is. and w Europe to n Iberian Peninsula | sw Europe, e USA and w Africa
  • L. f. intermedius - Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, sw Sweden and w Norway | w Europe and w Africa
  • L. f. fuscus - n Norway, Sweden and Finland to the White Sea (nw Russia) | ne, e Africa and sw Asia
  • L. f. heuglini - arctic tundra from Kola Peninsula (nw Russia) to Yamal Peninsula (nc Siberia) | to Red Sea, w Indian Ocean to Tanzania and w, n, e Arabian Gulf
  • L. f. barabensis - wc Asia from se Ural Mts. to w Siberia and n Kazakhstan | to coasts of Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman and w, n, e Arabian Sea
Data Number
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Updated at: 2024-02-23 18:34:52
User Observations
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External links



adult breeding

adult non-breeding


first winter

first summer

second winter

first calendar year

second calendar year


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