Taxonomy conform IOC World Bird List


  • Breeding range => Palearctic : c, w
  • Nonbreeding range => to n Africa


  • T. i. coburni - Iceland and Faroe Is. | w Europe
  • T. i. iliacus - n, e Europe to c Siberia | to n Africa and sw Asia



Near Threatened


Within its European range it has experienced moderate declines, and although the majority of the population occurs outside Europe, it is suspected that at least some declines are occurring elsewhere in its range.  It is therefore precautionarily uplisted to Near Threatened as it almost meets the requirements for listing as threatened under criteria A2b+3b+4b.  More research is needed in Asian Russia to confirm the overall population trend.


During the breeding season this species is found in forest-open country mosaics in lowlands and relatively low hills, with preference for mid-successional conditions, especially in river basins and on floodplains.  It also inhabits open deciduous or mixed forest margins with fields and mires, clearings in primary forest, regenerating managed forest at the tall bushy stage with considerable understorey, shoreline thickets, tundra willow Salix and birch Betula scrub, scrubby semi-open cultivated sites, parks and gardens and thinned woodland with grassy areas around buildings.  In the winter it uses open woodland, orchards and scrub thickets, wherever berry-bearing bushes and grassy areas are nearby.  In more southern areas of winter range it may reach higher elevations than elsewhere, for example occupying orchards, olive groves and cedars in the High Atlas mountains, Morocco (Collar and de Juana 2013).  The breeding season is from early April to late July, with some latitudinal variation.  The nest is a bulky cup of grass, moss and twigs, bound with mud and bits of vegetation and lined with fine grass stems and leaves.  It is sited on the ground in thick vegetation or low in a bush or tree or on a rotten stump.  It feeds on invertebrates as well as seeds and berries in the autumn and winter.  The species is chiefly migratory (Collar and de Juana 2013).


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Updated at: 2024-02-27 22:54:11
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