Taxonomy conform IOC World Bird List


  • Palearctic : w, c, introduced worldwide


  • S. v. caucasicus - Caucasus to s Iran
  • S. v. vulgaris - most of Europe
  • S. v. faroensis - Faroe Is.
  • S. v. zetlandicus - Shetland Is.
  • S. v. granti - Azores (all islands, nw Macaronesia, nw of n Africa)
  • S. v. poltaratskyi - se European Russia to w Mongolia
  • S. v. tauricus - Ukraine, sw Russia and Turkey
  • S. v. purpurascens - e Turkey, Georgia and Armenia
  • S. v. oppenheimi - se Turkey and n Iraq
  • S. v. nobilior - ne Iran, s Turkmenistan and Afghanistan
  • S. v. porphyronotus - e Kazakhstan and nw China to Uzbekistan and Tajikistan
  • S. v. humii - w Himalayas
  • S. v. minor - c, s Pakistan
Data Number
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Updated at: 2024-02-25 18:04:40
User Observations
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External links



adult breeding

adult non-breeding


first calendar year

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