Taxonomy conform IOC World Bird List


  • Breeding range => Palearctic : widespread, also w Alaska
  • Nonbreeding range => Oriental Region, Africa


  • M. a. yarrellii - Ireland, Britain and coastal w Europe | nw Africa
  • M. a. alba - se Greenland, Iceland and the Faroe Is. through continental Europe to the Ural Mts., the Caucasus, c Asia and Middle East | Africa, Arabia and sw, s Asia
  • M. a. subpersonata - w Morocco
  • M. a. personata - n Iran to sw Siberia, w Mongolia, nw China and w Himalayas | e Arabia to India
  • M. a. baicalensis - sc Siberia to ne China | India to c Indochina
  • M. a. ocularis - n Siberia to nw Alaska | s Asia to n Philippines
  • M. a. lugens - coastal Sea of Okhotsk, c Kamchatka, Commander Is. and Sakhalin (e Russia), n Korean Peninsula and Hokkaido to Kyushu (n to s Japan) | to se Asia, se China, Taiwan and Japan to Ryukyu Is.
  • M. a. leucopsis - c, e China, Amurland and Ussuriland (se Russia), Korean Peninsula and sw Honshu and n Kyushu (c to sw Japan) | India, se Asia, se China and Taiwan
  • M. a. alboides - c, e Himalayas to s China, n Indochina and n Myanmar

Source Wikipedia Source: Wikipedia

Data Number
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Updated at: 2024-02-28 20:15:44
User Observations
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External links



adult breeding


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