Taxonomy conform IOC World Bird List


  • Oriental Region : widespread
  • It has since been introduced widely elsewhere, including adjacent areas in Southeast Asia, Madagascar, the Middle East, South Africa, Israel, the United States, Argentina, Germany, Spain and Portugal, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand and various oceanic islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, including prominent populations in Fiji and Hawaii.


  • A. t. tristis - s Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and e Iran to s China, Indochina, Malay Peninsula and s India
  • A. t. melanosternus - Sri Lanka
Data Number
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Updated at: 2024-02-17 01:57:05
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